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:: Volume 8 - Issue 4 (Autumn 2021, In press) ::
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Global evaluation of potentially harmful elements (PHEs) in potato and carrot irrigated by wastewater: A systematic review, meta-analysis, and health risk assessment
Pouria Karimi , Ahmadreza Yazdanbakhsh , Ali Atamaleki , Fatemeh Kariminejad , Mohammad Ahmadian , Sevda Fallah
Corresponding author: Workplace Health Promotion Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran , yazdanbakhsh@sbmu.ac.ir
Abstract:   (122 Views)
Background: We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis on the concentration of potentially harmful elements (PHEs) in carrots and potatoes irrigated by wastewater and estimate non-carcinogenic health risks among adult and children consumers.
Methods: The health risk of PHEs concentration, including Pb, Cd, total Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, and Fe, in the edible parts of carrot and potato irrigated by wastewater was investigated by a meta-analysis using a random-effects model (REM). Accordingly, the related articles were screened from international databases such as Scopus, Medline, and Embase.
Results: The meta-analysis of 32 papers (38 studies) revealed that the rank order of the most accumulated PHEs in potato was Fe (86.54 mg/kg wet weight) > Zn (30.9 mg/kg wet weight) > Cu (13.7 mg/kg wet weight) > Ni (8.42 mg/kg wet weight) > Pb (5.56 mg/kg wet weight) > Cr (3.45 mg/kg wet weight) > Cd (0.58 mg/kg wet weight). This ranking for carrot was Fe (43.36 mg/kg wet weight) > Zn (36.29 mg/kg wet weight) > Ni (13.49 mg/kg wet weight) > Cu (9.79 mg/kg wet weight) > Pb (1.84 mg/kg wet weight) > Cr (1.05 mg/kg wet weight) > Cd (0.28 mg/kg wet weight). Total hazard quotient (THQ) of PHEs was higher than 1 for potato and carrot; its rank order for potato and carrot was Cu > Pb > Cd > Ni > Fe > Zn > Cr and Cd > Pb > Cu > Ni > Fe > Zn > Cr, respectively. The Cd, Pb, and Cu had also a considerable role for consumer health risk.
Conclusion: According to the results, continuous monitor and control of wastewater treatment plants are necessary.
Keywords: Wastewater, Food chain, Cadmium, Lead, Risk assessment
Full-Text [PDF 1025 kb]   (115 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Review Article | Subject: General
Received: 2021/11/2 | Accepted: 2021/11/1
Tables S1-S3 [PDF 394 KB]  (3 Download)
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مجله مدیریت و مهندسی بهداشت محیط Environmental Health Engineering And Management Journal
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